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Amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis A. Lipsky, Ivor Amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis, Christopher T. Prostatitis is characterized by voiding symptoms and genitourinary pain and is sometimes associated with sexual dysfunction. The causes and treatment of nonbacterial prostatitis are largely unknown, but bacterial prostatitis is caused by infection with uropathogens, especially gram-negative bacilli, although infection is sometimes due to gram-positive and atypical microorganisms. Acute bacterial prostatitis is easily diagnosed by abrupt urogential and often systemic symptoms, along with amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis and treated by systemic antibiotic therapy.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is characterized by prolonged or recurrent symptoms amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis relapsing bacteriuria; diagnosis traditionally requires comparing urinary specimens obtained before with specimens obtained after prostatic massage. Treating chronic bacterial prostatitis requires prolonged therapy with an antibiotic that penetrates the prostate ie, one with high lipid solubility, a low degree of ionization, high dissociation constant, low protein binding, and small molecular size.
We review recent pharmacological and clinical data on treating bacterial prostatitis. Prostatitis is a common syndrome that usually presents with voiding symptoms irritative or obstructive and pain genitourinary, pelvic, or rectal and is sometimes associated with sexual dysfunction eg, ejaculatory discomfort and hematospermia.
Characteristic features include a high prevalence, substantially impaired quality of life, and frequent recurrences [ 1 ]. Although some cases are clearly infectious, most men who receive a diagnosis of prostatitis have no evidence of a genitourinary bacterial infection and the cause is usually unknown [ 2 ].
Disagreement persists over how to define prostatitis, including debates over the relative importance of various clinical, microbiological, and histopathological findings [ 3 ]. Advances in the past decade, however, have spurred better-designed clinical trials and generated more robust evidence regarding treatment. One major amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis was the development amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis a National Institutes of Health NIH consensus definition and classification system Table 1 [ 45 ].
This scheme, although limited by the lack of a reliable comparison standard, clarified that a small minority of men with prostatitis have bacterial infection ie, acute bacterial prostatitis [ABP; category I] or chronic bacterial prostatitis [CBP; category II] [ 6 ]. The rest have nonbacterial prostatitis. A new syndrome, asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis category IVis defined by an abnormal semen analysis, elevated prostate-specific antigen PSAor incidental findings of prostatitis on examination of a biopsy specimen.
This questionnaire scores disorders relating to pain, voiding, and quality of life. The greatest area of amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis in treating prostatitis concerns the approach to nonbacterial prostatitis. This review, however, will focus on treatment of bacterial prostatitis amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis will only briefly discuss nontreatment issues or nonbacterial disorders.
Because of the familiarity of the prostatitis categories, we will generally refer to them by their classical rather than NIH designations. Our recommendations are derived from a comprehensive review of the literature and our combined clinical experience. Reported rates of prostatitis are similar in North America, Europe, and Asia [ 15 ]. In addition to discomfort, amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis syndromes are responsible for substantial physical and emotional distress [ 1617 ] and financial costs [ 14 ].
The prostate gland has several natural defenses against infection, including the production of antibacterial substances and mechanical flushing of the prostatic urethra by voiding and ejaculation [ 18 ]. However, poor drainage of secretions from peripheral ducts or reflux of urine into prostatic tissue may lead to inflammation, fibrosis, or stones. Most bacterial prostatitis probably follows a urinary tract infection UTIespecially with uropathogens that demonstrate special virulence factors [ 19 ].
Risk factors for developing prostate infection include urinary tract instrumentation, having a urethral stricture, or urethritis usually due to sexually transmitted pathogens. The formation of either bacterial biofilm or prostatic calculi favors chronic, treatment-resistant amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis [ 22 ].
Histopathological findings in bacterial prostatitis are poorly defined, with infection primarily in the acinar rather than the interstitial spaces [ 22 ] amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis primarily luminal rather than parenchymal. ABP typically presents abruptly with voiding symptoms and distressing but poorly localized pain and is often associated with systemic findings eg, malaise and fever [ 5 ]. Clinicians should enquire about urogenital disorders, recent genitourinary instrumentation, and new sexual contacts.
Between symptomatic UTIs, patients may be asymptomatic, despite ongoing prostatic infection. Physical examination should include obtaining vital signs and examining the lower abdomen seeking a distended bladderback seeking costovertebral-angle tendernessgenitalia, and rectum. Digital prostate palpation in ABP can cause discomfort and can potentially induce bacteremia but is safe if done gently.
Few laboratory tests are diagnostically useful in evaluating possible prostatitis. Any patient at risk should be screened for sexually transmitted infections. All patients with possible prostatitis need a urinalysis and urine culture. Blood cultures and a complete blood count are useful in ABP. For patients with possible CBP, the 4-glass test is considered to be amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis diagnostic criterion standard. Diagnosis is based on finding substantially lower leukocyte and bacterial counts in voided bladder urine specimens from the urethra VB1 and bladder VB2compared with counts in post-prostatic massage voided urine VB3 or expressed prostatic secretions EPS.
Adding a culture of ejaculated semen improves the diagnostic utility of the 4-glass test [ 2526 ], but semen cultures are positive more often than are cultures of VB3 or EPS in men with nonbacterial prostatitis [ 27 ].
The 4-glass test is cumbersome, inadequately validated, and rarely performed, even by urologists [ 2829 ]. It may be diagnostically amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis on first presentation, but its value is limited in previously treated patients with chronic symptoms.
A simpler 2-glass test comparing pre- with post-prostatic massage urine specimens provides similar results [ 30 ]. Evaluating patients with chronic prostatitis should usually include administering the NIH-CPSI and perhaps measuring urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine; only selected patients need further urodynamic or imaging studies [ 32 ].
Various imaging studies can detect a suspected prostatic abscess. Figure 1 shows our approach to evaluating a patient with possible prostatitis. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli are the predominant pathogens in bacterial prostatitis. Some debate the role of gram-positive organisms other than enterococci [ 3637 ], but most accept Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species as pathogens [ 37—39 ]. The increasing prevalence of gram-positive pathogens may represent changing disease amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis perhaps related to fluoroquinolone therapy or acceptance of their pathogenicity by health care providers.
Limited data suggest that obligate anaerobes may rarely cause chronic prostatitis [ 40 ]. Some cases of prostatitis are caused by atypical pathogens [ 34 ]. Other possible prostatitis pathogens include Mycoplasma genitalium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycobacterium tuberculosisvarious fungi, and several viruses [ 34 ]. The approach to treating bacterial infection of the prostate largely centers on appropriately selected antibiotic therapy. Overview of antibiotic therapy.
Treatment of bacterial prostatitis is hampered by the lack of an active antibiotic transport mechanism and the relatively poor penetration of most antibiotics into infected prostate tissue and fluids. Most antibiotics are either weak acids or bases that ionize in biological fluids, which inhibits their crossing prostatic epithelium Figure 2 [ 23 ].
Only free, non-protein-bound antibiotic amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis enter tissues. Passage of a drug through prostatic capillary endothelium and prostatic epithelium is enhanced by a high concentration gradient, high lipid solubility, low degree of ionization, high dissociation constant pKa; allowing diffusion of the unionized component into the prostatelow protein binding, and small molecular size [ 42 ]. A pH gradient allows electrically neutral molecules to pass through membranes, become ionized, and be trapped.
Although ion trapping may increase prostatic drug amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis, the charged fraction has an unclear antimicrobial role. Many early studies of prostatic antibiotic penetration amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis dogs, which generally have acidic prostatic fluid.
Human studies have mostly used adenoma tissue derived from prostate resection. These uninfected samples of mixed tissues and fluids with varied pH levels generally have antibiotic concentrations that exceed those in plasma.
In humans, alkaline drugs eg, trimethoprim amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis clindamycin undergo ion trapping, which leads to high prostatic concentrations. Acidic drugs, such as beta-lactams, achieve lower levels, but more drug is in the active unionized state. Fluoroquinolones have emerged as the preferred antibiotics for treating bacterial prostatitis, and several have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA for this indication. Compared with concentrations in plasma, drug levels are generally higher in urine, similar in seminal fluid and prostatic tissue, and lower albeit therapeutic in prostatic fluid [ amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis44 ].
One concern with these agents is the growing problem of fluoroquinolone resistance, which generally requires treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin eg, ceftazidime or ceftriaxone or a carbapenem eg, imipenem or ertapenem [ 45 ]. Table 2 provides information on other antibiotics that may be useful for treating bacterial prostatitis, based on pharmacodynamic data, case reports, or Amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis approval for treating UTIs.
Although penicillin G achieves poor prostatic concentrations, piperacillin has good levels and has been used successfully to treat CBP. Cephalosporins, despite being weak acids with low lipid solubility, can attain therapeutic levels in prostatic fluid or tissue Table 2. Aztreonam, imipenem, and some aminoglycosides can attain levels in prostatic tissue that exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of most Enterobacteriaceae. Erythromycin—and probably other macrolides, as well—can develop high prostate concentrations.
Clindamycin and amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis readily enter prostatic fluid, and levels of these drugs in prostatic fluid may exceed levels in plasma. The prostatic concentration of sulfamethoxazole is much lower, raising doubts that it synergizes with trimethoprim. Nitrofurantoin prostatic levels are likely nontherapeutic.
Amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis 3 outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used antimicrobial agents for the amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis of CBP. Antibiotic therapy for ABP. For systemically ill patients with ABP, parenteral antibiotic therapy is preferable, at least initially. Most antibiotic agents penetrate the acutely inflamed prostate, but experience favors empirical treatment with a broad-spectrum beta-lactam drug—either a penicillin eg, piperacillin- tazobactam or a cephalosporin eg, cefotaxime or ceftazidime —perhaps combined with an aminoglycoside for patients who are severely ill or who have recently received antibiotic therapy.
Clinicians should consider local drug-resistance patterns in choosing antibiotics, especially with the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains in complicated UTIs [ 21 ], and should adjust therapy on the basis of culture results. Clinically stable patients may be treated with oral therapy usually a amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis.
Duration of therapy for ABP is usually 2 weeks, although it can be continued for up to 4 weeks for severe illness or treatment of patients with concomitant bacteremia. Two recent studies provide insights on treating ABP.
A multicenter retrospective survey revealed that community -acquired infections were 3 times more common than nosocomial infections; E. A similar study found a high rate of ciprofloxacin- resistant pathogens and that nosocomial acquisition or prior instrumentation were associated with increased antibiotic resistance and higher rates of clinical failure [ 47 ].
Ancillary measures for ABP include ensuring adequate fluid intake and urinary drainage. CBP should be treated with 4—6 weeks of antibiotic therapy. When persistent infection is caused by infected prostate stones or other types of genitourinary pathology, patients who have shown some response may benefit from more-prolonged antibiotic therapy [ 48 ].
In contrast with treatment of ABP, treatment of CBP can usually be delayed until culture and susceptibility results are available. Fluoroquinolones are the preferred drugs, except when resistance to these agents is confirmed or strongly suspected. Clinical and microbiological response rates are similar in those whose prostatic specimens grow either well-accepted uropathogens or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species [ 39 ].
Giving repeated courses of antibiotics is generally unwise. Surgically removing infected prostatic stones may help amoxiclav 1000 von Prostatitis other measures fail. Some case reports suggest apparent benefit from direct injection of antimicrobials into the prostate, but the evidence is insufficient to recommend this approach. Long-term suppressive therapy with low doses of oral antibiotics eg, trimethoprim- sufamethoxazole may reduce symptomatic recurrences, but evidence is lacking.
Clinicians often treat nonbacterial prostatitis because of concern over missing infections that are due to pathogens that are difficult to culture, and because many apparently uninfected patients appear to respond to treatment.