3 age-related prostate issues
Skip to Content. Prostate dritter Grad is called the stage and grade. Use the menu to see other pages. Staging is a way of describing where the cancer is located, if or where it has spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body. Doctors use diagnostic tests to find out the cancer's stage, Prostate dritter Grad staging may not be complete until all of the tests are finished. Staging for prostate cancer also involves looking at test results to find out if the cancer has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body.
Knowing the stage helps the doctor to decide what kind of treatment is best and can help predict a patient's prognosis, which is the chance of recovery.
There are different stage descriptions for different types of cancer. Clinical staging. If scans are needed, Prostate dritter Grad can add more information to help the doctor figure out the clinical stage.
Pathologic staging. This is based on information found during surgery, plus the laboratory results, referred to as pathology, of the prostate tissue removed during surgery.
The surgery often includes the removal of the entire prostate and some lymph nodes. Examination of the removed lymph nodes can provide more information for pathologic staging.
One tool that doctors use to describe the stage is the TNM system. Doctors use the results from diagnostic tests and scans to answer these questions:. Metastasis M : Has the cancer metastasized to other parts of the body? If so, where and how much? The results are combined to determine the stage of cancer for each person.
Prostate dritter Grad are 5 stages: stage 0 zero and stages I through IV 1 through 4. The stage provides a common way of describing the cancer, so doctors can work together to plan the best treatments. Using the TNM system, the Prostate dritter Grad plus a letter or number 0 to 4 is used to describe the size and location of the tumor.
Some stages are Prostate dritter Grad divided into smaller groups that help describe the tumor in even more detail. Specific tumor stage information is listed below. If the tumor is staged clinically, it is often written as cT. If pathologic staging is used, it is written as pT. T1: The tumor cannot be felt during a DRE and is not seen during imaging tests. It may be found when surgery is done for another reason, usually for BPH or an abnormal growth of noncancerous prostate cells.
T1c: The tumor is found during a needle biopsy, usually because the patient has an elevated PSA level. T2: The tumor is found only in the prostate, not other parts of the body. It is large enough to be felt during a DRE. T3: The tumor has grown through the prostate on 1 side and into the tissue just outside the prostate. Prostate dritter Grad The tumor has grown through the prostate either on 1 or both sides of the prostate. This called extraprostatic extension EPE. T4: The tumor Prostate dritter Grad fixed, or it is growing into nearby structures other than the seminal vesicles, such as the external sphincter, the part of the muscle layer that helps to control urination; the rectum; the bladder; levator Prostate dritter Grad or the pelvic wall.
T3: Prostate dritter Grad is EPE. The tumor has grown through the prostate on 1 Prostate dritter Grad both sides of the prostate. These tiny, bean-shaped organs help fight infection. Lymph nodes near the prostate in the pelvic region are called regional lymph nodes. Lymph nodes in other parts of the Prostate dritter Grad are called distant lymph nodes.
The "M" in the TNM system indicates whether the prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or the bones. This is called distant metastasis. M1c: The cancer has spread to another part of the body, with or without spread to the bone.
Prostate cancer is also given Prostate dritter Grad grade called a Gleason score. This score is based on how Prostate dritter Grad the cancer looks like healthy tissue when viewed under a microscope. Less aggressive tumors generally look more like healthy tissue. Tumors that are more aggressive are likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body. They look less like healthy tissue. The Gleason scoring system is the most common prostate cancer grading system used. The pathologist looks at how the cancer cells are arranged in the prostate and assigns a score on a scale of 3 to 5 from 2 different locations.
Cancer cells that look similar to healthy cells receive a low score. Cancer cells that look less like healthy cells or look more aggressive receive a higher score. To assign the numbers, the pathologist determines the main pattern of cell growth, which is the area where the cancer is most obvious and looks for another area of growth. The doctor then gives each Prostate dritter Grad a score from 3 to 5.
The scores are added together to come up with an overall score between 6 and Gleason scores of 5 or lower are not used. The lowest Gleason score is 6, which is a low-grade cancer. A Gleason score of 7 is a medium-grade cancer, and a score of 8, 9, or 10 is a high-grade cancer. A lower-grade cancer grows more slowly and is less likely to Prostate dritter Grad than a high-grade cancer.
Doctors look at the Gleason score in addition to Prostate dritter Grad to help plan treatment. For example, active surveillance see Treatment Options may be an option for a patient with a small tumor, low PSA level, and a Gleason score of 6.
Patients with a higher Gleason score may need treatment that is more intensive, even if the cancer is not large or has not spread. Gleason 6 or lower: The cells are well differentiated, meaning they look similar to healthy cells. Gleason 7: The cells are moderately differentiated, meaning they look somewhat similar to healthy cells. Gleason 8, 9, or The cells are poorly differentiated or undifferentiated, meaning they look very different from healthy cells.
Doctors assign the stage of the cancer by combining the T, N, and M classifications. Stage I: Cancer in this early stage is usually slow growing. The tumor cannot be felt and involves one-half of 1 side of the prostate or even less than that.
PSA levels are low. Stage II: The tumor is found only in the prostate. PSA levels are medium or low. Stage II prostate cancer is small but may have an increasing risk of growing and spreading.
Stage IIA: The tumor Prostate dritter Grad be felt and involves half of 1 side of the prostate or even less than that. This stage also includes larger tumors confined to the prostate as long as the cancer cells are still well differentiated cT2b—cT2c, N0, M0, PSA level is less than 20, Group 1.
The PSA level is medium. These all indicate a locally advanced cancer that is likely to grow and spread. It may also have spread to the seminal vesicles. The PSA level is high. Recurrent: Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that Prostate dritter Grad come back after treatment. It may come back in the prostate area again or in other parts of the body. If the cancer does return, there will be another round of tests to learn about the extent of the recurrence.
These tests and scans Prostate dritter Grad often similar to those done Prostate dritter Grad the time of the original diagnosis. In addition to stage, doctors use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how successful treatment will be. The lower your risk, the lower the chance that the prostate cancer will grow and spread.
Very low risk. The tumor cannot be felt during a Prostate dritter Grad and is not seen during imaging tests but was found during a needle biopsy T1c. The Gleason score is 6 or less. Cancer was found in fewer than 3 samples taken during a core biopsy. The cancer was found in half or less of any core.
Low risk. The tumor is classified as T1a, T1b, T1c, or T2a see above. Very high risk. The tumor is classified as T3b or T4 see above. The histologic grade is 5 for the main pattern of cell growth, or more than 4 biopsy cores have Gleason scores between 8 and This score can be used to help make decisions about the treatment plan. These categories are then used to assign a score between Prostate dritter Grad and The next section in this Prostate dritter Grad is Treatment Options.
You may use the menu to choose a Prostate dritter Grad section to read in this guide. There are 2 types of staging for prostate cancer: Clinical staging.