Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) & Its Main Trigger: STRESS
Kissing can sometimes lead to heartbreak, but did you know it can also be hazardous to Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis health? But we might not have to give up kissing just yet. A vaccine currently under development at an Australian Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis, the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, could help limit the dangers posed by this sometimes deadly virus.
Also known as human herpesvirus 4 HHV-4it is one of the most common viruses in humans, with between 90 and 95 per cent of adults infected. While it is best known as the cause of glandular fever, it is also associated with a wide range of more serious illnesses, including. Some evidence suggests Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis genetic factors and reduced immunity Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis immunity A body's reaction to the introduction of foreign substances, through the production of defensive substances such as antibodies.
Ina surgeon working in Uganda, Denis Burkitt, presented the results of his research to staff at the Middlesex Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis Medical School in Britain. He reported that the incidence of a certain tumour in African children had a geographic distribution corresponding to rainfall and temperature patterns.
The influence of climate on its incidence seemed to suggest that some biological factor was involved. Three researchers, M. Epstein, Y. Barr and B. Achong, immediately began looking for possible cancer-causing viruses in samples of the tumour sent from Uganda to Britain.
Inthey Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis the culprit using Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis electron microscope: a previously unknown member of the herpes family of viruses. Epstein and Barr were awarded the dubious honour of having the pathogen named after them. It was the first virus to be directly associated with human cancer. People infected with the Epstein-Barr virus will retain it for life, but it Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis not make them Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis.
In fact, the virus infects almost everyone in developing countries and more Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis 95 per cent of people in developed Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis. Most people are infected with the virus during childhood, probably by their mothers, and are usually not noticeably affected. They may be ill for several weeks or months before their immune system Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis in to action.
Often the symptoms of EBV are not distinguishable from other general colds and flu. Those who do experience symptoms generally recover within 2 Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis 4 weeks, however full recovery can take months.
It is important to note however that while your symptoms may have disappeared, the virus has not. It can Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis difficult for doctors to diagnose EBV because its symptoms so closely resemble a range of other illnesses. However, a blood test can confirm the presence of EBV antibodies in the system, whether someone is susceptible to the virus, or has had a recent or past infection.
Find out more about the laboratory testing of EBV. A photomicrograph showing cells containing the Epstein-Barr virus. EBV primarily infects the oropharynx the part of Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis throat at the back of the mouthspecifically the salivary glands, as well as the oral mucosal membrane the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and the nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue above Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis soft palate. The virus replicates quickly in these areas, enabling it to Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis easily through saliva from one person to another.
After the initial infection it Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis to infect white blood cells known as B lymphocytes B-cells. Infection of B-cells with Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis virus transforms them into B-cells with unlimited growth potential, causing them to rapidly multiply and increase in number.
This proliferation is combated by the immune system; it activates Cytotoxic T lymphocytes T-cells and Natural Killer Cells in defence against EBV, which combine with certain antigens produced by the virus and Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis cells that harbour it. T-cells are unable to combine with Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis particular antigen and will not attack the infected cell. An antibody reacts specifically with the antigen that induced its formation and inactivates the antigen.
Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis bodies fight off an infection by producing Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis. They operate at different levels: antibodies at the molecular Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis and T-cells at the cellular level. Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis are protein molecules that move freely in the bloodstream. They are Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis by white blood cells in response to the presence of molecules on the surface of the disease-causing microorganism.
These molecules are known as antigens. A particular antibody will combine best with the antigen that caused the production of that antibody: thus, the antibody is said to be specific for its antigen. Antibodies react chemically with these antigens in such a way that the microorganism or toxin is neutralised and destroyed before a cell is infected. At the cellular level, the body manufactures what are known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes—T-cells.
These white blood cells recognise certain antigens produced by microorganisms and kill cells that harbour them. If an invading microorganism evades the antibodies and infects a cell, the T-cells will recognise the infected cell and kill it. Thus the two weapons of acquired immunity, the antibody and the T-cell, complement each other.
They combine with the antigens on the surface of the microorganism Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis immobilise it so it is no longer Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis to damage cells in the body.
If, despite the efforts of the antibodies, some cells in the body become infected, the memory T-cells Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis mobilised rapidly to kill the infected cells. Thus, the body has acquired immunity against that particular disease. Vaccination works by introducing harmless versions of a disease-causing microorganism or certain antigens of the microorganism to the immune systems of uninfected individuals.
The body is thus equipped with the right armory should infection by the real microorganism occur. The vaccines used in vaccination are of several types:. Protection against some infections may be achieved by passive immunisation. Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis this type of immunisation, antibodies produced in one person are introduced into another.
These antibodies are injected into the host shortly before the expected exposure to a disease-causing microorganism. The antibodies are obtained from the blood plasma of people who have had the disease Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis have been immunised against it. Injection of the Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis confers immediate protection against infection for a short time weeks. It may also be effective if given shortly after such exposure; for example, after being bitten by a snake or rabid Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis.
Although Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis immune system may seem to have beaten EBV, in reality it has been duped. Occasionally if Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis correct conditions exist in the future such as reduced immunity through infectionthe Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis can sometimes reactivate.
In some people, however, the T-cell response is not strong enough, resulting in unrestricted growth of B-cell lymphocytes, which greatly increases the risk of the patient developing a form of cancer. A colourised electron micrograph image of a T-cell, one of the body's defences against EBV. Since its initial discovery as the first Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis cancer virus, EBV has continued to be associated with the development of a wide range of tumours.
Scientists have been working for years to determine why EBV causes cancer in only a small percentage of the vast number of people who carry the virus, how it develops into different types of cancers, and why it affects different populations and age groups across the world.
A key piece in the puzzle was understanding how our immune systems respond to Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis fight EBV. In the s doctors discovered that a large number of patients who had received transplants in the decade before had developed cancer—generally skin Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis but also lymphomas too.
These became Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis as post-transplant lymphoma, but doctors could not work out what caused them. Samples of these tumours were tested and found to be positive for EBV. With the outbreak of the AIDS virus in the s, it was found that some patients of the disease developed certain types of cancer including lymphomas that had close similarities to post-transplant lymphomas. When analysed, almost all the samples tested positive for EBV too. What was the link between people with HIIV and transplant patients?
The answer lay in their immune systems—specifically its weakened state after either transplant or fighting the AIDS virus. Further understanding of the virus and the Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis it worked came in when the complete DNA sequence of EBV was published.
The key proteins made by the virus—those which allowed it to push B cells to multiply and become cancerous—were now known to scientists. Researchers concluded that although there were a combination of variables that caused EBV cancers to develop, there was one consistent factor—a change in the Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis between the immune system and the Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis.
Basically, the ability of the body and its immune system to stay in control of the virus was imperative to stopping cancers forming. A weakened or poorly functioning immune system due Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis illness, disease, drugs or even a genetic variation in genes that reduces the ability of immune cells to spot EBV result in the normally shy Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis contained virus kicking up its heels and running rampant.
The proteins made by the virus direct the cells to keep dividing and multiplying exponentially—the principal cause of cancer. As with most viruses, the best chance Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis defence against EBV is vaccination. Yet a vaccine has been elusive, partly because the virus is so good at hiding. Both tasks are extremely difficult. It may be possible, though, to produce a vaccine against glandular fever and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, since both produce antigens that are recognised by T-cells.
Australian scientists have produced such a vaccine. The future of Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis New techniques for the development and delivery Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis vaccines are aiding the search for effective immunisation strategies. Scientists isolate the genes from disease-causing bacteria or viruses that provide information to make specific antigens.
Bacteria can have plasmids in addition to the DNA of Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis main chromosome. Foreign DNA can be added to plasmids. The modified plasmid then transports the DNA into a new cell. Once inside the body the plasmids penetrate host cells, where they start manufacturing antigens.
These Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis, released over a long period, induce an active immune response by the body, including Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis production of both antibodies and specialised white blood cells cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
The technique may be used to produce vaccines for both viral and bacterial infections; it shows such promise that clinical investigation of Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis possible AIDS Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis has already begun.
A similar technique involves the insertion of selected genes from a disease into benign bacteria or viruses. These are then administered to the patient and serve as a sort of antigen factory, using the inserted genes to churn out antigens of the disease-causing organism. These antigens invoke an immune response that will help protect the patient from a subsequent infection. Conventional vaccines often use weakened or killed cells of the disease itself.
While this has proved effective against many diseases, some vaccines developed by this technique produce occasional side-effects in patients. New methods using recombinant DNA technology have led to the development of many vaccines that use only a small part of the disease-causing organism or that use a harmless version of the microbe. For example, by removing genes from the cholera bacterium it becomes safe to use in a vaccine. These methods produce extremely safe vaccines, but they are often less effective than whole-cell vaccines.
This usually involves the use Epstein-Barr-Virus Prostatitis what are called adjuvants, which are substances added to the vaccine to aid its operation.