MASAJES PROSTÁTICOS - ¿Qué son y para qué sirven? - REVIEWS
Prostate cancer staging is the process by which physicians categorize the risk of cancer having was Prostata g beyond the prostateor equivalently, the probability of being cured with local therapies such as surgery or radiation.
Once patients are placed in prognostic categories, this information can contribute to the selection of an optimal approach to treatment. Prostate cancer stage can be assessed by either clinical or pathological staging methods. There are two schemes commonly used to stage prostate cancer. The most common is promulgated by the American Joint Committee on Cancer AJCCand is known as the TNM systemwhich evaluates the size of the tumorthe extent of involved lymph nodesand any metastasis distant spread and also takes into account cancer grade.
As with many other cancers, these are often grouped into four stages I—IV. Another scheme that was used in the past was Whitmore-Jewett stagingalthough TNM staging is more common in modern practice. Briefly, Stage I disease is cancer that is found incidentally in a small part of the sample when prostate tissue was removed for other reasons, was Prostata g as benign prostatic hypertrophyand the cells closely resemble normal cells and the gland was Prostata g normal to the examining finger.
In Stage II more of the prostate is involved and a lump can be felt within the gland. In Stage III, the tumor has spread through the prostatic capsule and the lump can be felt on the surface of the gland. In Stage IV disease, the tumor was Prostata g invaded nearby was Prostata g, or has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. The Gleason Grading System is based on cellular content and tissue architecture from biopsies, which provides an estimate of the destructive potential and ultimate prognosis of the disease.
It should be stressed that the designation "T2c" implies a tumor which is palpable in both lobes of the prostate. Tumors which are found to be bilateral on biopsy only but which are not palpable bilaterally should not be staged as Was Prostata g. Usually, the grade of the cancer how different the tissue is from normal tissue is evaluated separately from the stage; however, for prostate cancer, grade information is used in conjunction with TNM status to group cases into four overall stages.
Of note, this system of describing tumors as "well-", was Prostata g, and "poorly-" differentiated based on Gleason score of, andrespectively, persists in SEER and other databases but is generally outdated.
In recent years pathologists rarely assign a tumor a grade less than 3, particularly in biopsy tissue. A more was Prostata g consideration of Gleason grade is:. Note that, under current guidelines, if any Pattern 5 is present it is was Prostata g in final score, regardless of the percentage of the tissue having this pattern, as the presence of any pattern 5 is considered to be a poor prognostic marker. The tumor, lymph node, metastasis, and grade status can be combined into four stages of worsening severity.
Although it is no longer commonly used in practice, the Whitmore-Jewett system also known as ABCD rating is similar to the TNM system and has approximately equivalent was Prostata g. While TNM staging is important, systems based just on anatomic features are not well was Prostata g for deciding what treatment is best for a patient with prostate cancer, as there is still considerable heterogeneity of prognosis within the stage categories.
A more refined prognosis can be established by consideration of prostate-specific antigen, and grade i. Gleason score in the Gleason grading system. For example, it is now common to classify patients into high, intermediate and low-risk groups on the basis of these three factors TNM stage, PSA and Gleason score. Currently, there is no clear division between stage, which is historically a statement of anatomic extent of disease at diagnosis, and was Prostata g models that may include many features that contribute to clinical outcome.
If treated, patients with low-risk disease are usually treated with active surveillance, prostatectomyor radiotherapy alone. Patients with intermediate-risk disease are candidates for prostatectomy or was Prostata g and a short duration less than 6 months of hormonal ablation medical castration using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog.
Although the role of surgery in these patients remains uncertain, those with high-risk was Prostata g are usually treated with radiotherapy and a long duration of hormonal ablation. Many high-risk patients are not cured by this treatment, and the search for better treatments in this group is a particularly pressing concern in prostate cancer research.
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See also: histology. Textbook of was Prostata g. Sandler, C. Was Prostata g, Stephen B, ed. AJCC cancer staging manual 7th ed. New York: Springer. Union for Was Prostata g Cancer Control. Retrieved 11 November Overview of tumorscancer and oncology C00—D48— Hyperplasia Cyst Pseudocyst Hamartoma. Carcinoma Sarcoma Blastoma Papilloma Adenoma. Precancerous condition Paraneoplastic syndrome.
Benign tumors Hyperplasia Cyst Pseudocyst Hamartoma.