Prostate Anatomy - Anatomical Animation
Anatomically, the prostate can be subdivided in two ways: by zone or Prostata Prostatitis lobe. The prostate Prostata Prostatitis contains some smooth muscles that also help expel semen during ejaculation. The function of the prostate is to secrete a fluid which contributes to the volume of the semen. The prostatic fluid is expelled in the first part of ejaculatetogether with most of the sperm.
In comparison with the few Prostata Prostatitis expelled together with mainly seminal vesicular fluid, those in prostatic fluid have better motilitylonger survival, and better protection of genetic material.
Disorders of the prostate include enlargement, inflammationinfection, and cancer. The classical description of a healthy human male prostate portrays it as slightly larger than a walnut. A study stated that prostate volume among patients with negative biopsy is related significantly with weight and height body mass indexso it is necessary to control for weight. One can sub-divide the prostate in two ways: by zone or by lobe.
The "lobe" classification is more often used in anatomy. The prostate is incompletely divided into five lobes:. The "zone" classification is more often used in pathology. John E. McNeal first proposed the idea of "zones" in McNeal found that the relatively Prostata Prostatitis cut surface of an adult prostate in no way resembled "lobes" and thus led to the description of "zones".
The prostate gland has four distinct glandular regions, two of which arise from different segments of the prostatic urethra:.
The secretory epithelium is mainly pseudostratified, comprising tall columnar cells and basal cells, which are supported by a fibroelastic stroma — containing randomly oriented smooth-muscle bundles — that is Prostata Prostatitis with the bladder.
The epithelium is highly variable and areas of low cuboidal Prostata Prostatitis squamous epithelium are also present, with transitional epithelium in the distal regions of the longer ducts. Three histological types of cells are present in the prostate gland: glandular cells, myoepithelial cells, and subepithelial interstitial cells.
The prostatic part of the urethra develops from the pelvic middle part of the urogenital sinus endodermal origin. Endodermal outgrowths arise from the prostatic part of the urethra and grow into the surrounding mesenchyme. The glandular epithelium of the prostate Prostata Prostatitis from these endodermal cells, and the associated mesenchyme differentiates into the dense stroma and the smooth muscle of the prostate.
Condensation of mesenchymeurethraand Wolffian ducts gives rise to the adult prostate gland, a composite organ made Prostata Prostatitis of several tightly fused glandular and non-glandular components.
During male seminal emission, sperm is transmitted from the vas deferens into the male urethra Prostata Prostatitis the ejaculatory ducts, which lie within the prostate gland. Ejaculation is the expulsion of semen from the urethra. It is possible for some men to achieve orgasm solely through stimulation of the prostate gland, such as prostate massage or anal intercourse.
Prostatic secretions vary among species. They are generally composed of simple sugars and are often slightly alkaline. The secretions also contain zinc with a concentration —1, times the concentration in blood. To function properly, the prostate needs male hormones androgenswhich are responsible for male sex characteristics.
The main male hormone is testosteronewhich is produced mainly by the testicles. It is dihydrotestosterone DHTa metabolite of testosterone, that predominantly regulates the prostate. Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. It can be caused by infection with bacteria, or other noninfective causes. Prostata Prostatitis of Prostata Prostatitis prostate can cause painful urination Prostata Prostatitis ejaculation, groin pain, difficulty passing urine, or constitutional symptoms.
A culprit bacteria may grow in a urine culture. Acute prostatitis and chronic bacterial prostatitis are treated with antibiotics. Prostata Prostatitis recently, a combination of trigger point and psychological therapy has proved effective for category III prostatitis as well. Benign prostatic hyperplasia refers to a non-malignant enlargement hyperplasia of the prostate that is very common in older men.
Symptoms include needing to urinate often frequencyor taking a while to get started hesitancy. If the prostate grows too large, it may constrict the urethra and Prostata Prostatitis the flow of urine, making urination difficult and painful and, in extreme cases, completely impossible, causing urinary retention.
BPH can be treated with medication, a minimally invasive procedure or, in extreme cases, surgery that removes the prostate. In general, treatment often begins with a alpha antagonist medication such as tamsulosinwhich reduces the tone of the smooth muscle found in the ureter that passes through the prostate, making it easier for urine to pass through.
In TURP, an instrument is inserted through the urethra to remove prostate tissue that is pressing against the upper part of the urethra and Prostata Prostatitis the flow of urine. Older men Prostata Prostatitis have corpora amylacea  amyloiddense accumulations of calcified proteinaceous material, in the ducts of their prostates.
The corpora amylacea may obstruct the lumens of the prostatic ducts, and may underlie some cases of BPH. Urinary frequency due to bladder spasm, Prostata Prostatitis in older men, may be confused with prostatic hyperplasia. Statistical observations show Prostata Prostatitis effects of diet and alcohol consumption. Life-style changes to improve the quality of urination include urinating in the sitting position.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting older men in developed countries and a significant cause of death for Prostata Prostatitis men. Screening for prostate cancer may be in the form of a physical rectal Prostata Prostatitis or measurement of prostate specific antigen PSA level in the blood. However, given the significant risk of overdiagnosis with widespread screening in the general population, prostate cancer screening is controversial. The prostate is found as a male accessory gland in all placental mammals excepting edentatesmartensbadgers and otters.
The gland is particularly well developed in dogs, foxes and boars, though in other mammals, such as bulls, it can be small and inconspicuous. They excrete this fluid Prostata Prostatitis with their urine to mark their territory. This mixes with and coagulates semen during copulation to form a mating plug that temporarily prevents further copulation. Prostata Prostatitis prostate gland originates with tissues in the urethral wall. This means the urethraa compressible tube used for urination, runs through the middle of the prostate.
This leads to an evolutionary design fault for some mammals, including human males. The prostate is prone to infection and enlargement later in life, constricting the urethra so urinating becomes slow and painful. Skene's gland is found Prostata Prostatitis both female humans and rodents. Historically it was thought to be a vestigial organ, but recently it has been discovered that it produces the same protein Prostata Prostatitis, PSA and PABas the male prostate.
Monotremes and marsupial moles lack Prostata Prostatitis, instead having simpler cloacal glands Prostata Prostatitis carry their function. A prostate gland also occurs in some invertebrate species, such as gastropods. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 12 October This article is about the male prostate gland. For the equivalent female prostate gland, see Skene's gland. For the "prostrate" body position, see Prostration.
For the journal, see The Prostate. Prostate with seminal vesicles and seminal ductsviewed from in front and above. Main article: Prostate massage. Main article: Prostatitis. A digital Prostata Prostatitis examinations may be performed to investigate how large a prostate is, or Prostata Prostatitis a prostate is Prostata Prostatitis which may indicate inflammation. A diagram of prostate cancer pressing on the urethra, which can cause symptoms. Micrograph showing an inflamed prostate gland, the histologic correlate of prostatitis.
A normal non-inflamed prostatic gland is seen on the left of the image. Micrograph showing normal prostatic glands and glands of prostate cancer prostatic adenocarcinoma — right upper aspect of image. HPS stain. Prostate biopsy. Main article: Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Main article: Prostate cancer. Further information: Prostate cancer screening. Vesiculae seminales and ampullae of ductus deferentes, front view. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved The Vertebrate Body. The Histochemical Journal.
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Henry Am J Physiol. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. Clinical Anatomy.
Urology Match. The Journal of Urology. Archived from the original on Gray's Anatomy. Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning.