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Extension of human life span is the most important objective of modern science. With ageing body regulating functions deteriorate and are accompanied by the immunity disorders and development of age-related diseases [1, 2, 7, 21, 33, 35, 37]. The ageing process is characterized with a complex of alterations due to impairments in many body functions, diminution of adaptive capacities, progressive growth of abnormal alterations and death probability.
The causes and mechanisms of ageing are not quite clear as yet. A great deal of theories were suggested to explain some or other ageing mechanisms [30, 34].
According to one of them ageing is caused by accumulation of pathologic alterations in the body, and the rate for such an accumulation might be influenced by genetic factors as well as by environmental conditions [11, 12]. An issue of health maintenance and longevity consists mainly in utilization of natural body reserve capacities. Therefore, issues regarding implementation of the very own body biological potential are still of current interest being key objectives for gerontology in general and geriatrics, in particular .
One of the priority trends of current research in gerontology is a concept of biological regulation bioregulation suggested and proved by V. Khavinson and V. Morozov [25, 26, 27]. The bioregulation as per up-to-date notions proceeds on several levels such as supracellular, intercellular, intracellular and molecular.
The bioregulation mechanisms in spite of multilevel hierarchy perform a single task to coordinate processes of biosynthesis, interchanging and reproduction of genetic information. The bioregulation unites all control mechanisms in a pluricellular organism . Multiplicity and complexity of the regulating processes suggest presence of universal mediators for prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara transmission to a cell.
Such mediators are peptide bioregulators that exist in different tissues and reveal a wide range of biological activity. They participate in intercellular interactions by transmitting information recorded through corresponding amino acid sequence from one cell to another .
Prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara and not-the-least objective for gerontology is to pursue for new means of the ageing inhibition and life-span extension the so-called geroprotectors. Development of new therapeutics based on endogenous physiologic active substances produced by a body is a novel approach for restitution of functions lost with ageing .
One of the recent discoveries consists in obtaining from animal organs and tissues of the peptide bioregulators, cytomedins . Firstly the cytomedins were obtained from hypothalamic area of the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, thymus and vascular wall [25, 26]. Later peptides similar in origin and physical-chemical properties but different regarding functional activity were found in other body tissues, as well [23, 41, 42]. At present class of peptide bioregulators enumerates several dozens of known compounds and their number increases constantly.
As per chemical composition they are complexes of polypeptides having molecular weight of to daltons. After experimental and clinical studies of cytomedins there appeared possibility for preventive and therapeutic application of peptide agents to enhance body resistance to impact of negative environmental factors.
Last years among the agents of bioregulation therapy another new class of therapeutics generally named as cytamins prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara being biologically active nucleoprotein complexes extracted from animal organs and tissues appeared. The said medicines relate to parapharmaceuticals and can effectively restore altered functions in organs they were extracted from [22, prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara. Normalizing effect of peptide bioregulators on the functions of various organs and tissues was found.
Therefore, one can suggest that peptide bioregulators might affect tissue morphology restituting their altered structure. To prove the aforementioned mechanism of action for the peptide agents the clinical study of influence of cytomedins and cytamins on prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara in structure of abnormally altered tissues in parenchymatous organs.
Among the most topical problems in the modern medicine there stands out the search for such a method of intrinsic organ visualisation that would provide a sufficiently informative, evident, fast and patient-friendly demonstration of the target organs in their normal state and pathologic morphology alterations. We applied one of the radiation diagnosis methods, namely, ultrasound diagnosis USD. The USD method presents a number of advantages: it is non-invasive, painless and easily tolerable for the patient, which is very important for any sick person and, especially, for elderly patients.
Elimination of ionised irradiation is another USD advantage over the rest of radiation diagnosis techniques. There-upon, USD is virtually unlimited in its application in the patient, i. Providing double-dimension image of the studied organ USD, at the same time, is fast often used as a screening examinationportable possible to be used at home, on a trip, etc. USD does not require any prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara preparation of the patient and has no contraindications, thus allowing immediate examination of various organs .
Another reason for using USD is its adequacy for the set objectives. Majority of the target organs are quite accessible for ultrasound. In particular, it refers to the thyroid gland, prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara, kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, prostate and ovaries. Unfortunately, such structures as the pineal gland, cerebral cortex, vessels are impossible to be assessed by ultrasound. We would like to give a brief review of the biophysic basics for obtaining an image by ultrasound.
Ultrasound prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara appear prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara to the so-called piezo-effect. In case of the quartz plate deformation, an electric potential appears prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara its surface. On the other hand, if an electric charge is delivered to the quartz plate its dimensions change. If an alternating voltage with a particular ultrasound frequency is taken to the piezo-element the latter would vibrate with the similar frequency emitting an ultrasound.
The piezo-element can interchangeably be both receiver and transmitter of the ultrasound oscillations. One or several suchlike elements mounted in a protective housing along with electric contacts are called an acoustic transformer, transducer prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara probe. It is an obligatory part for any diagnosis ultrasound device. Sound spreads in a medium as waves of particular oscillation frequency.
In the international system of units SI one Hertz Hz is taken as a unit of oscillatory motion frequency and equals 1 oscillation per second; oscillations equal 1 kilohertz kHz and 1 — 1 megahertz MHz.
In medicine audible sound suggestion, music therapy, etc. The oscillatory motion frequency and the wave-length are of important practical value: the higher the frequency is, the shorter the wave-length is. Application of high-frequency transmitters provides improved exposure of small details in the examined object at little depth, and vice versa. Acoustic or wave impedance is taken as a characteristic for any prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara medium including body tissues as well.
Changes in the medium elasticity or density alter acoustic impedance. It means that at the medium boundary the sound energy is partially reflected and, furthermore, the larger the difference of acoustic impedance between two media is, the larger the amount of energy would be reflected from the boundary between them.
A boundary between tissues and air is a complete reflector; therefore, lungs or gastrointestinal tract filled with gas cannot be examined by the ultrasonography. Due to the same reason, to provide penetration of the ultrasound wave into the human tissues between the probe surface and skin, one must put a contact medium, prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara.
Medical ultrasound diagnosis equipment allows to obtain three types of images, namely, A, B and M. The A-type image is single-dimensional being a single space coordinate along direction of the sound beam spreading. Time is indicated at the X-axis, and the signal amplitude — at the Y-axis. The less the echo intensity is, the darker the corresponding image part on the screen is, and vice versa.
Nowadays the B-type prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara is mainly used in the abdominal sonography. The M-type imaging is based on Doppler's effect: while a sound source is approaching to an observer, its frequency increases, and at moving away it diminishes. The said principle and imaging type are primary for echocardiography. Basing on the data obtained by M-scanning heart biometric indices amplitude and speed of motion of cardiac structures, etc.
Diagnosis ultrasound devices are normally furnished with a set of probes with various radiation frequencies. The probe frequency characteristics significantly alter the quality of the obtained acoustic image. For instance, preferable frequency for examination of the patients with excessive body weight is about 2. Finally, in many cases sonography can and must be considered as preferable, first-choice and major diagnostic method. The given technique often provides all information required at the given clinical situation making unnecessary application of other, more expensive, effort-consuming, aggressive and costly ones .
Its main function is synthesis and incretion in blood and lymph of hormones regulating tissue growth, development, proliferation, differentiation and body metabolism. This U-shape gland is located in front and at the sides of the trachea and comprises two lobes with different measurements.
Generally, the gland right and left lobes are connected with an isthmus. The dimensions of each lobe are: lengthwise — up prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara cm, width — up to cm and thickness — up to During pubescent period the thyroid gland is enlarged, and its size diminishes in the elderly.
The thyroid gland is of histological structure typical for endocrine glands: there are no excretory ducts and every functional unit is closely connected with the vascular system. The thyroid gland structural unit is a follicle, that is a round or slightly oval close vesicle with the wall covered with secretory follicular epithelium, i.
Thyrocytes produce thyroid hormones thyroxin — T4 and triiodothyronine — T3as well as thyreoglobulin. The latter is the main colloid constituent filling the follicular space. Simultaneously the thyroid gland produces thyreoalbumin.
Normal ratio of thyreoglobulin to thyreoalbumin prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara about 9 : 1. In disorders associated with thyroid gland parenchyma proliferation, its goitrous transformation and adenoma development thyreoalbumin production increases, and the latter, in case of thyroid malignancy, might even excess thyreoglobulin synthesis.
Beside prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara follicles, in the thyroid gland interfollicular extra-follicular islands formed by cells with a typical thyrocyte-like structure are defined. Interfollicular islands are of importance for regeneration of the thyroid gland if the latter considerably impaired and entire follicles are destroyed. Hypophysial thyrotropic hormone is considered to be the specific thyroid gland stimulator. In its turn, thyrotropic hypophysial function is activated by thyroliberin produced in the hypothalamus.
Therefore, hypothalamic impairment causes similar decline in the thyroid gland functioning as hypophysectomy. This can be defined as transadenohypophysial regulation.
In its turn, the thyroid hormones inhibit the hypophysial thyrotropic function, i. The thyroid hormones are necessary for normal functioning of the central nervous system. Content of the thyroid hormones in children at the age of 1 to 15 years prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara not change considerably.
However, with ageing the thyroxin-binding globulin and thyroxin levels decrease and triiodothyronine content increases. The thyroid gland functional activity remains stable for a long time. Only in the elderly people atrophic alterations in the gland parenchyma are observed.
They are associated with inconsiderable decrease of basal metabolism though there are signs of the thyroid gland activity growth that can be considered as compensatory reaction counteracting oxidative processes exacerbation in the tissues of a senescent organism .
Both birth defects and alterations in the thyroid gland are rare. Primarily, the thyroid gland disorders are accompanied by signs of increased prostatilen Zink gekauft in Samara or inhibited hypothyrosis function.