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The origins of Livorno are controversial, although the place was inhabited since the Neolithic Age as shown by worked bones, pieces of copper and ceramic found on the Livorno Hills in a cave between Ardenza and Montenero. Prostatilen Preise Seen Livorno was Etruscan Labro. The natural cove called Liburnais a reference to the type of ship, the liburnaused by Roman navy. Other ancient prostatilen Preise Seen include Salviano Salvius and Antignano Ante ignem which was the place situated before Ardenza Ardentia where were the beacons for the ships directed to Porto Pisano.
Prostatilen Preise Seen cited Liburna in a letter to his brother and called it Labrone. In prostatilen Preise Seen, a tower was built by Matilda of Tuscany. The Republic of Pisa owned Livorna from and built a quadrangular fort called Quadratura dei Pisani "Quarter of the Pisans" to defend the port.
Between anda census counted families in Livorno, including persons. Monks, Jews, military personnel, and the homeless were not included in the census. After the arrival of the Medicithe ruling dynasty of Florence, some modifications were made; between and the Fortezza Vecchia was constructed, and the voluntary resettlement of the population to Livorno was stimulated, but Livorno still remained a rather insignificant coastal fortress.
The Porto Mediceo was overlooked and defended by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. In the late s, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscanydeclared Livorno a free port porto francowhich meant that the goods traded here were duty-free within the prostatilen Preise Seen of the town's control.
Inthe Duke's administration established the Leggi Livornine to regulate the trade. The laws established a well-regulated market and were in force until Expanding Christian tolerance, the laws offered the right of public freedom of religion and prostatilen Preise Seen to prostatilen Preise Seen having to gain penance given by clergy in order to conduct civil business. Arrival of the latter begun in the late sixteenth century with the Alhambra Decreewhich resulted in the expulsion of Jews prostatilen Preise Seen Spain and Portugal - while Livorno extended to them rights and privileges; they contributed to the mercantile wealth and scholarship in the city.
Livorno became an enlightened European city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean Basin. Many European foreigners moved to Livorno. FrenchDutchand English arrived, along with Orthodox Greeks. Meanwhile, Jews continued to trade under their previous treaties with the Grand Duke.
The Counter-Reformation increased prostatilen Preise Seen among Christians; dissidents to the Papacy were targeted by various Catholic absolute rulers. Livorno's tolerance fell victim to the European wars of religion. But, in the preceding period, the merchants of Livorno had developed a series of trading networks with Protestant Europe, and the Dutch, British, and Germans worked to retain these.
At the end of the 17th century, Livorno underwent a period of great urban planning and expansion. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress was built, together with the town walls and the system of navigable canals through neighborhoods.
After the port of Pisa had silted up in the 13th century, its distance from the sea increased and it lost its dominance in trade, prostatilen Preise Seen Livorno took over as the prostatilen Preise Seen port in Tuscany. By Livorno's population had risen to 32, persons. The more successful of the European powers re-established trading houses in the region, especially the British with the Levant Company. In turn, the trading networks grew, and with it, Britain's cultural contact with Tuscany.
An increasing number prostatilen Preise Seen British writers, artists, philosophers, and travelers visited the area and developed the unique historical ties between the two communities.
The British referred to the city as "Leghorn". Through the centuries, the city's trade fortunes fell and rose according to the success or failure of the Great Powers.
The British and their Protestant allies were important to its trade. During the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars of the late Eighteenth century, Napoleon's troops occupied Livorno with the rest of Tuscany. Under the Continental Systemthe French prohibited trade with Britain, and the economy prostatilen Preise Seen Livorno suffered greatly.
The French had altogether taken over Tuscany inincorporating it into the Napoleonic empire. After the Congress of ViennaAustrian rule replaced the French. InItaly succeeded in its wars of unification. At that time it counted 96, inhabitants. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Livorno had numerous public parks housing prostatilen Preise Seen museums such as the Museo Civico Giovanni FattoriMuseo di storia naturale del Mediterraneoand cultural institutions as the Biblioteca Labronica F.
During the s, numerous villas were built on the avenue along prostatilen Preise Seen sea in Liberty style on design by Cioni. In the early 19th century, the first American-born saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton converted from Protestantism to Catholicism while visiting Italian friends in Livorno. The prostatilen Preise Seen suffered extensive damage during World War II. Many historic sites and buildings were destroyed by bombs of the Allies preceding their invasion, including the cathedral and Synagogue of Livorno.
Livorno's citizens in prostatilen Preise Seen decades have become well known for their left-wing politics. The Italian Communist Party was founded in Livorno in Livorno has a hot-summer mediterranean prostatilen Preise Seen Köppen climate classification Csa. Summers have warm days with the heat lingering on throughout the night, hence going above the prostatilen Preise Seen threshold in spite of its relatively high latitude.
Winters are mild for the latitude due to the influence from the Mediterranean Sea. Ferdinando II de' Medici considered, inthe opportunity to enlarge the town, on project by Giovanni Battista Santi, toward north in an area included among Fortezza Vecchia and Fortezza Nuovain order to give an adequate space to the maritime and commercial activities. There was the need to build a mercantile district, close to Porto Mediceoprovided with houses and depots to store the merchandise and a system of canals to facilitate their transport.
The Chiesa prostatilen Preise Seen Sant'Annadedicated to Saint Annewas built in on the ground of the Arch confraternity of the Company of the Nativity;  in the same year Giovanni Battista Santi died and the control of the project passed to Giovanni Francesco Cantagallina though the works slowed down due to the lack of funds. The paving of the roads and along the canals in Venezia Nuova was provided in while the Pescheria Nuova New fish-market was built in close to the Scali del Pesce where the fish was unloaded.
In the s Venezia Nuova was the district of the Consuls of the Nations and of the most important international retailers who had the warehouses filled with goods from everywhere waiting to be shipped by sea to the most different destinations. The palaces along the canals had the turrets from which to see the prostatilen Preise Seen approaching the port, moreover they had the stores at the canal level to facilitate the unloading of the goods from the boats.
The Venezia Nuova district retains much of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, narrow lanesthe houses of the nobilitychurches as Santa Caterina da Siena and San Ferdinandoand a dense network of canals that once served to link its warehouses to the port. Ferdinando I commissioned it to Giovanni Bandini in to carry out a monument in white Carrara marble to represent him prostatilen Preise Seen the uniform of the Grand master of the Order of Saint Stephen which in that period prevailed in several naval battles against the Barbary pirates.
The monument was completed inshortly before the death of Bandini which occurred on 18 April,  prostatilen Preise Seen arrived to Livorno by sea from Carrara in Ferdinando I projected to add four statues of moors prisoners at the pedestal of his monument and gave the task to Pietro Tacca in  but the monument remained in a corner of the square till 29 May when it was inaugurated by Cosimo Prostatilen Preise Seen de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
During the French occupation of Livorno, from tothe monument was removed from Sextius Mollis commander of the French garrison because it represented an insult to the tyrannyas soon as the French left the town the monument was put back in its proper place.
During World War II the monument was transferred in a protected place in order to avoid to be damaged by allied attacks, the statue of Ferdinando I was hidden in the Pisa Charterhouse and the four moors in the Medici Villa at Poggio a Caiano. The Acquedotto Leopoldino and the neoclassical cisterns of Livorno were part of a sophisticated scheme to provide water to Livorno.
La Gran Conservaor Il Cisternonesituated on what were the outskirts of 19th-century Livorno, is the largest and best known of the city's covered cisterns. At the beginning of the 19th century arose the need to connect the Medicean road system of the Pentagono del Buontalenti to the new eastern districts of the town, on the other side of the Fosso Realeand the requirement to dismantle the city gate Porta a Pisa.
The solution adopted in was that of Luigi Bettarini which considered the coverage of the Fosso Reale with an imposing vaultmeters long and 90 meters wide,  creating an elliptical paving.
The portion of canal covered by the new structure continued to be navigable. The new square was commonly called Piazza del Voltone untilthen Piazza dei Granduchi in honour of the Lorraine dynasty untilin the period of the Italian unification was named to Carlo Alberto until June when was given the current name Piazza della Repubblica.
The Terrazza Mascagni is a wide sinuous, suggestive belvedere toward the sea from which it is possible to admire the Livorno hills, the Tuscan Archipelago until the Corsica and the Port of Livorno. A new parterrebuilt in and completed in on project by Enrico Salvais and Luigi Pastore, was formed by a series of flower beds and a walkway which follow the outline of the sea with numerous balustrades named to Costanzo Ciano.
The Terrazza has a paving surface of 8, square meters formed by 34, black and white tiles placed as a checkerboard and 4, balusters. On 13 June a building, placed in Via del Porticciolowas purchased for the sum of seven thousand ducatsin order to accommodate the Community.
It prostatilen Preise Seen evident that it was prostatilen Preise Seen to the task and the Council deliberated, on 27 Januarythe construction of the new town hall on project by Giovanni del Fantasia. In the the complex was enlarged with the acquisition of three other buildings in the back.
Damaged by the bombing during World War II it was rebuilt and renovated under the direction of Primavera and was inaugurated in by the mayor Furio Diaz. The original plan was drawn up by Bernardo Buontalenti when he projected the new town. The construction begun in June on a reviewed plan by Alessandro Pieroni under prostatilen Preise Seen direction by Antonio Cantagallina. The church had a rectangular plant with a single nave, the original wooden prostatilen Preise Seen, executed from towas carved by Vincenzo Ricordati  and gilded with seven inserted paintings.
The church was consecrated on 19 February by Monsignor Nunzio Antonio Grimani; on request by Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscanyinwas elevated to collegiate church and the Curato was substituted from a Proposto having the functions of the Vicar of the archbishop of Pisa.
The left side chapel, dedicated to the Eucharistwas built on project by Prostatilen Preise Seen del Fantasia with frescoes by Giovanni Maria Terreni and the altar attributed to Giovanni Baratta, The right prostatilen Preise Seen chapel, dedicated to Immaculate Conceptionwas built in and was decorated with paintings by Luigi Ademollo. The Collegiata in was elevated to cathedral and in was added the bell tower 50 meters high on project by Gaspero Pampaloni.
The Church of the Madonna is placed on the homonymous street which connect directly the city centre with the district Venezia Nuova through the John of Nepomuk bridge. According to the tradition the church was built to host the statute of Our Lady of Mount Carmel subtracted from a Turkish ship. The construction begun on 25 March on project by Alessandro Pieroni and was completed in ; the church at first was dedicated to Prostatilen Preise Seen MarySaint Francis and Saints Cosmas and Damian but in was dedicated to the Immaculate Conception following an enlargement of the prostatilen Preise Seen.
The church has a rectangular plant with a single nave and groin vaulton each side there are the three altars of the foreigner Nations. The altar of the Corsica Nation, which at the time was under the Republic of Genoahas a prostatilen Preise Seen representing John the Evangelist. The altar of the Portuguese Nation built in the 17th century had a wooden statue of Saint Mary until when this was positioned near the main altar and replaced by one of Anthony of Padua.
The church is called Unite Greeks too because was the worship place for the Greek community of Byzantine Rite once lived in Livorno. At the end of 16th century numerous Greeks came to Tuscany to take service aboard the galleys of the Order of Saint Stephen.
The church was built in on project by Alessandro Pieroniwas completed in and consecrated on 25 March The interior has a single nave and the ceiling is adorned by a coffer structure with prostatilen Preise Seen central painting representing the Annunciation by Giovanni Domenico Ferretti It was founded around prostatilen Preise Seen contains over Carrara marble graves of notable people from 10 different nationalities.
The cemetery was closed in and a new one, still active, was opened. Up in the hills the Sanctuary of Montenero, dedicated to Our Lady of Gracesthe patron saint of Tuscany, is a destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-votochiefly related to events of miraculous rescues of people at sea.
The origin of Fortezza Vecchia takes place not far from what once was Porto Pisano Pisan Port where a square tower was built inon request of Matilda of Tuscanyon the remains of a Roman tower; in the Pisans built a massive cylindrical tower, 30 meters high erroneously called Mastio di Matilde Matilda keep. In this fort was connected to a wall in order to defend better the town and the Darsena.
The construction was suspended since the popular revolt forced the Medici in exile prostatilen Preise Seen was resumed in on their return. Fortezza Vecchia is a massive fortification completed on 1 April under Alessandro de' Medici ; it was prostatilen Preise Seen in red-brick with sloping walls and the interposition of clear stones, it has a quadrangular plant with a perimeter of meters and was equipped with 24 cannons to protect each side.
The bastion toward north is called Capitana because there moored the main Galleyto east is Ampolletta since housed the sand-glass used to prostatilen Preise Seen the guard duty, to west is the Canaviglia derived from Cavaniglia the name of the commander of the galleys of the Grand Ducky of Tuscany.