prostatitis - patient education video
Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus plural cocci or spherical bacteria Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata belongs to the family Streptococcaceaewithin the order Lactobacillales lactic acid bacteriain the phylum Firmicutes. Contrast with that of staphylococciwhich divide along multiple axes, thereby generating irregular, grape-like clusters of cells.
Most streptococci are oxidase-negative and catalase-negativeand many are facultative anaerobes capable of growth both aerobically and anaerobically. Inmany bacteria formerly grouped in the genus Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus. This genus has been found to be part of the salivary microbiome. In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis strep throatcertain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye meningitisbacterial pneumoniaendocarditiserysipelasand necrotizing fasciitis the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections.
However, many streptococcal species are not pathogenic, and form part of the commensal human microbiota of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract. Streptococci are also a necessary ingredient in producing Emmentaler "Swiss" cheese.
Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. Beta-hemolytic species cause complete rupture of red blood cells. On blood agar, this appears as wide areas clear of blood cells surrounding bacterial colonies. Gamma-hemolytic species cause no hemolysis. Beta-hemolytic streptococci are further classified by Lancefield groupinga serotype classification that is, describing specific carbohydrates present on the bacterial cell wall.
This system Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata classification was developed by Rebecca Lancefielda scientist at Rockefeller University. In the medical setting, the most important groups are the alpha-hemolytic streptococci S.
Table: Medically relevant streptococci not all are alpha-hemolytic . Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci display alpha-hemolysis.
Alpha-hemolysis is also termed incomplete hemolysis or partial hemolysis because the cell membranes of the red blood cells are left intact. This is also sometimes called green hemolysis because of the color change in the agar.
Streptolysin, an exotoxin, is the enzyme produced by the bacteria which causes the complete lysis of red blood cells. Streptolysin O is an oxygen-sensitive cytotoxin, secreted by most group A Streptococcus GASand interacts with cholesterol in the membrane of eukaryotic cells mainly red and white blood cells, macrophages, and plateletsand usually results in beta-hemolysis under the surface of blood agar.
Streptolysin S is an oxygen-stable cytotoxin also produced by most GAS strains which results in clearing on the surface of blood agar. SLS affects immune cells, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes, and is thought to prevent the host immune system from clearing infection. Streptococcus pyogenesor GAS, displays beta hemolysis.
Some weakly beta-hemolytic species cause intense hemolysis when grown together with a strain of Staphylococcus. This is called the CAMP test. Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata this property. Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is also Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata on sheep's blood agar. Group A S. These infections may be noninvasive or invasive. The noninvasive infections tend to be more common and less severe.
The most common of these infections include streptococcal pharyngitis strep throat and impetigo. The invasive infections caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci tend to be more severe and less common. This occurs when the bacterium is able to infect areas where it is not usually found, such as the blood and the organs.
Additional complications may be caused Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata GAS, namely acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. Rheumatic fevera disease that affects the jointskidneysand heart valvesis a consequence of untreated strep A infection caused not by the bacterium itself.
Rheumatic fever is caused by the antibodies created by the immune system to fight off the infection Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata with other proteins in the body. This "cross-reaction" causes the body to essentially attack itself and leads to the damage above. A similar autoimmune mechanism initiated by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal GABHS infection is hypothesized to cause pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections PANDASwherein autoimmune antibodies affect the basal ganglia, causing rapid onset of psychiatric, motor, sleep, and other symptoms in pediatric patients.
GAS infection is generally diagnosed with a rapid strep test or by culture. Importantly, Streptococcus Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata is the most common cause of meningitis in infants from one month to three months old. They can Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata colonize the intestines and the female reproductive tract, increasing the risk for premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy, and transmission of the Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata to the infant.
Women who test positive should be given prophylactic antibiotics Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata labor, which will usually prevent transmission to the infant.
The United Kingdom has chosen to adopt a risk factor-based protocol, rather than the culture-based protocol followed in the US. Current guidelines state that if one or more of the following risk factors is present, then the woman should be treated with intrapartum antibiotics:. This group includes S. Many former group D streptococci have been reclassified and placed in the genus Enterococcus including E. The remaining nonenterococcal group D strains include Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata.
Nonhemolytic streptococci rarely cause illness. However, weakly hemolytic group D beta-hemolytic streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes which is actually a Gram-positive bacillus should not be confused with nonhemolytic streptococci.
Group F streptococci were first described in by Long and Bliss amongst the "minute haemolytic streptococci". These streptococci are usually, but not exclusively, beta-hemolytic. Streptococcus dysgalactiae [ contradictory ] is the predominant species encountered, particularly in human disease. In marine mammals it has been mainly associated with meningoencephalitissepsisand endocarditisbut is also associated with many other pathologies. Its environmental reservoir and means of transmission in marine mammals is not well characterized.
Group H streptococci cause infections in medium-sized canines. Group H streptococci rarely cause illness unless a human has direct contact with the mouth of a canine. One of the most common ways this can be spread is human-to-canine, mouth-to-mouth contact. However, the canine may lick the human's hand and infection can be spread, as well. The important pathogens S. The genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced. Some important genomes Streptococcus mitis in der Prostata listed in the table.
Bacteriophages have been described for many species of Streptococcus. Natural genetic transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. Transformation is a complex process dependent on expression of numerous genes.
To be capable of transformation a bacterium must enter a special physiologic state referred to as competence. Competence may allow the streptococcal pathogen to use external homologous DNA for recombinational repair of DNA damages caused by the hosts oxidative attack. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Beta-haemolytic streptococci. Not to be confused with Staphylococcus or Strep throat.
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