Clinical Pearls for Chlamydia & Gonorrhea
Neisseria Gonorrhoe in der Prostataalso known as gonococcus singularor gonococci plural is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in It is oxidase positive and aerobic, and it survives within neutrophils. It exhibits antigenic variation through recombination of its pili and surface proteins that interact with the immune system. Sexual transmission is possible through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Reinfection is possible due to N. Untreated infection in women may cause pelvic inflammatory disease and possible infertility due to the resulting scarring.
Neisseria species are fastidiousGram-negative Gonorrhoe in der Prostata that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures. Neisseria spp.
Nesseria is non-spore-forming, capable of moving using twitching motilityand an obligate aerobe requires oxygen to grow. Of the 11 species of Neisseria that colonize humans, only two are pathogens.
This agar preparation facilitates the growth of Neisseria species while inhibiting the growth of contaminating bacteria and fungi. Martin Lewis and New York City agar are other types of selective chocolate agar commonly used for Neisseria growth. On its surface, N. The pili mediate adherence, movement, and DNA exchange. The Opa proteins interact with the immune system, as do the porins. Lipooligosaccharide LOS is an endotoxin that provokes an immune response. All are antigenic and all exhibit antigenic variation see below.
The pili exhibit the most variation. The pili, Opa proteins, porins, and even the LOS have mechanisms to inhibit the immune response, making Gonorrhoe in der Prostata infection possible.
Dynamic polymeric protein filaments called type IV pili allow N. To enter the host the bacteria uses the pili to adhere to and penetrate mucosal surfaces. Subsequent pilus retraction drags the cell forward. The resulting movement is referred to as twitching motility. Surface proteins called Opa proteins can be used to bind to receptors on immune cells and prevent an immune response. At least 12 Opa proteins are known and the many permutations of surface proteins make recognizing N.
Lipooligosaccharide LOS is a low-weight version of lipopolysaccharide present on the surfaces of most other Gram-negative bacteria. It is a sugar saccharide side chain attached to lipid A thus "lipo-" in the outer membrane coating the cell wall of the bacteria. The root "oligo" refers to the fact that it is a few sugars shorter than the typical lipopolysaccharide. The shedding of LOS by the bacteria is responsible for local injury in, for example, pelvic inflammatory disease.
In addition to the ability to rearrange the Gonorrhoe in der Prostata it already has, it is also naturally competent to acquire new DNA via plasmidsvia its type IV pilus, specifically proteins Pil Q and Pil T.
Phase variation is similar to antigenic variation, but instead of changes at the genetic level altering the composition of molecules, these genetic changes result in the turning on Gonorrhoe in der Prostata off of a gene. That is, the bacteria introduce frameshift mutations that bring genes in or out of frame.
The result is that different Opa genes are translated every time. After gonococci invade and transcytose the host epithelial cells, they land in the submucosa, where neutrophils promptly consume them.
The exudates from infected individuals contain many neutrophils with ingested gonococci. Neutrophils release an oxidative burst of reactive oxygen species in their phagosomes to kill the Gonorrhoe in der Prostata.
Stohl and Seifert showed that the bacterial RecA protein, which mediates repair of DNA damage, plays an important role in gonococcal survival. The genomes of several strains of N. Most of them are about 2. Symptoms of infection with N. The discharge may be foul smelling. Pelvic inflammatory disease results if N. The resulting inflammation and scarring of the fallopian tubes can lead to infertility and increased risk of ectopic pregnancy.
In perinatal infectionthe primary manifestation is infection of the eye neonatal conjunctivitis or ophthalmia neonatorum when Gonorrhoe in der Prostata newborn is exposed to N. The eye Gonorrhoe in der Prostata can lead to corneal scarring or perforation, ultimately resulting in blindness. If the newborn is exposed during birth, conjunctivitis occurs within 2—5 days after birth and is severe. Silver nitrate is no longer used in the United States.
Disseminated gonococcal infections can occur when N. Given the high rate of asymptomatic infection, all pregnant women should be tested for gonorrhea infection. Traditionally, the bacterium was thought to move attached to spermatozoa, but this hypothesis did not explain female to male transmission of the disease. A recent study suggests that rather than "surf" on wiggling spermN. For N. Transmission can be reduced by using latex barriers e. Spermicides, vaginal foams, and douches are not effective for prevention of transmission.
The Gonorrhoe in der Prostata treatment recommended by the CDC is a dual antibiotic therapy. This includes an injected single dose of ceftriaxone a third-generation cephalosporin along with azithromycin administered orally. Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea has been noted beginning in the s. Gonorrhea was treated with penicillin, but doses had to be progressively increased to remain effective.
By the s, penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant gonorrhea Gonorrhoe in der Prostata in the Pacific Basin. These resistant strains then spread to Hawaii, California, the rest of the United States, and Europe.
Fluoroquinolones were the next line of defense, but Gonorrhoe in der Prostata resistance to this antibiotic emerged, as well.
Gonorrhoe in der Prostatastandard treatment has been third-generation cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone, which are considered to be our "last line of defense". Recently, a high-level ceftriaxone-resistant strain of gonorrhea called H was discovered in Japan.
Lab tests found it to be resistant to high concentrations of Gonorrhoe in der Prostata, as well as most of the other antibiotics tested. Within N. However, because of N. As a gram negative bacteria, N. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is named for Albert Neisser, who isolated it as the causative agent of the disease gonorrhea in InAlbert Neisser isolated and visualized N.
Until this point, researchers debated whether syphilis and gonorrhea were manifestations of the same disease or two distinct entities. He erroneously concluded that both syphilis and gonorrhea were indeed the same disease when the man developed the copper-colored rash that is classic for syphilis.
One Gonorrhoe in der Prostata, Ricord, took the initiative to perform inoculations of gonorrheal pus on patients of a mental hospital, with zero cases of syphilis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram-stain Gonorrhoe in der Prostata gonococcal urethritis.
Note distribution in neutrophils and presence of both intracellular and extracellular bacteria. Zopf Trevisan .
Main article: Gonorrhoea. Created by J. Curated by A. Parte since Retrieved 7 July Ueber eine der Gonorrhoe eigentümliche Micrococusform. Centralblatt für die medizinischen Wissenschaften 17 28 : Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Infobase Publishing. Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed. McGraw Hill. Retrieved 7 December Microbial Cell. Review of medical microbiology and immunology Thirteenth ed.
New York. Henrich Humana Press. October Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Bibcode : Natur. PLoS Biol. Lay summary — New Scientist 19 April Molecular Microbiology.