Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.
Infection can be due to a variety of bacteria. The Aspiration der Prostata may have an insidious course with increased respiratory rate, foul-smelling sputum, hemoptysis, and fever.
Complications may occur, such as exudative pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscesses. Aspiration pneumonia is often caused by Aspiration der Prostata defective swallowing mechanism, such as a neurological disease or as the result of an injury that Aspiration der Prostata impairs swallowing or interferes with consciousness.
Impaired consciousness can be intentional, such as the use of general anesthesia for surgery. For many types of surgical operationspeople preparing for surgery are therefore instructed to take nothing by mouth nil per Aspiration der Prostataabbreviated as NPO for at least four hours before surgery.
These conditions enable the entry of bacteria into the lungs, thus allowing the development of an infection. Bacteria involved in aspiration pneumonia may be either aerobic or anaerobic. Anaerobic bacteria also play a key role in the pathogenesis of aspiration pneumonia.
Aspiration is defined as inhalation of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the pulmonary tree. Depending on the composition of the aspirate, three complications have been described: . Aspiration der Prostata location is often gravity dependent, and depends on the person's position. Generally, the right middle and lower lung lobes are the most common sites affected, due to the larger caliber and more vertical orientation of the right mainstem bronchus.
People who aspirate while standing can have bilateral lower lung lobe infiltrates. The right upper lobe is a common area of consolidation, where liquids accumulate in a particular region of the lung, in alcoholics who aspirate in the supine position. Evaluation of aspiration is generally performed with a video fluoroscopic swallowing study involving radiologic evaluation of the swallowing mechanism via challenges with liquid and solid food consistencies.
These studies allow for evaluation of penetration to the vocal folds and below but are not a sensitive and specific marker for aspiration. Aspiration pneumonia is typically diagnosed by a combination of clinical circumstances people with risk factors for aspiration and radiologic findings an infiltrate in the proper location.
While aspiration pneumonia and chemical pneumonitis may appear similar, it is important to differentiate between the two due to major differences in management of these conditions. Chemical pneumonitis is caused by damage to the inner layer of lung tissue, which triggers an influx of fluid.
Inflammation is the body's immune response to Aspiration der Prostata perceived threat to the body. Thus, treatment of chemical pneumonitis typically involves removal of the inflammatory fluid and supportive measures, notably excluding antibiotics. There have been several practices associated with decreased incidence and decreased severity of aspiration pneumonia as detailed below. Studies showed that the net reduction of oral bacteria was associated with a decrease in both incidence of aspiration pneumonia as well Aspiration der Prostata mortality from aspiration pneumonia.
Many people at risk for aspiration pneumonia have an impaired swallowing mechanism, which may increase the chance of aspiration of food particles with meals. Many instances of aspiration occur during surgical operations, especially during anesthesia induction.
As a result, stomach particles can easily enter the lungs. Certain risk factors predispose individuals to aspiration, especially conditions causing dysfunction of the upper gastrointestinal system.
The main treatment of aspiration pneumonia revolves around the use of antibiotics to remove the bacteria causing the infection. Dysphagia clinicians often recommend alteration of dietary regimens, altered head positioning, or removal of all oral intake. While studies have suggested Aspiration der Prostata thickening liquids can decrease aspiration through slowed pharyngeal transit time, they have also demonstrated increased pharyngeal residues with risk for delayed aspiration. The ability of clinical interventions to reduce pneumonia incidence is relatively unknown.
Also increased pneumonia risk exists in patients with esophageal dysphagia when compared to stroke patients because patients with stroke will improve as they Aspiration der Prostata from their acute injury, whereas esophageal dysphagia is likely to worsen with time. Aspiration der Prostata have shown that aspiration pneumonia has been associated with an overall increased in-hospital mortality as compared with other forms of pneumonia.
In fact, these individuals were also found to be at higher risk for readmission after being discharged from the hospital. Aging increases the risk of dysphagia.
For individuals older than 75, the risk of pneumonia due to dysphagia, is six times greater than those Older patients may have impaired T cell function and hence, they may be unable to mount a febrile response. The mucociliary clearance of older people is also impaired, resulting in diminished sputum production and cough. Therefore, they can present non-specifically with different geriatric syndromes.
In the elderly, dysphagia is a significant risk factor for the development of aspiration pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia most often develops due to micro-aspiration of Aspiration der Prostata, or bacteria carried on food and liquids, in combination with impaired host immune function. Radiological review shows chronic inflammation in the consolidated lung tissue, linking chronic micro-aspiration and chronic lung inflammation.
After falls, choking on food presents as the second highest cause of preventable death in aged care. The familiar model of care for people with advanced dementia and dysphagia is the revolving door of recurrent chest infections, frequently associated with aspiration and related readmissions. Many individuals with dementia resist or are indifferent to food and fail to manage the food bolus.
There are also many contributory factors such as poor oral hygiene, high dependency levels for being positioned and Aspiration der Prostata, as well as the need for oral suctioning. While tube feeding might therefore be considered a safer option, Aspiration der Prostata feeding has not been shown to be beneficial in people with advanced dementia.
The preferred option therefore is to continue eating and drinking orally despite the risk of developing chest infections. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspiration pneumonia Microscopic image of aspiration pneumonia in an elderly person with a neurologic illness. Note foreign-body giant cell reaction. Journal of Critical Care. Elsevier Health Sciences. Archived from the original on Hong Kong Med J. Pathology: The Big Picture. New York, NY.
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New England Journal of Medicine. Scientific Reports. Intern Med. ICD - 10 : J Diseases of the respiratory system J— Community-acquired Healthcare-associated Hospital-acquired. Broncho- Lobar. Atelectasis circulatory Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary embolism Lung abscess. Mediastinitis Mediastinal emphysema. Bacterial pneumonia Viral pneumonia Fungal pneumonia Parasitic pneumonia Atypical pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia Healthcare-associated pneumonia Hospital-acquired pneumonia Ventilator-associated pneumonia Severe acute respiratory syndrome.
Aspiration pneumonia Lipid pneumonia Eosinophilic pneumonia Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Chemical pneumonitis Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. Placenta Aspiration der Prostata Placental insufficiency Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Umbilical cord prolapse Nuchal cord Single umbilical artery. Breech birth Asynclitism Shoulder presentation. Intrauterine hypoxia Infant respiratory distress syndrome Transient tachypnea of the newborn Meconium aspiration syndrome pleural disease Aspiration der Prostata Pneumomediastinum Wilson—Mikity syndrome Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Pneumopericardium Persistent fetal circulation. Ileus Necrotizing enterocolitis Meconium peritonitis. Aspiration der Prostata toxicum Sclerema neonatorum. Perinatal asphyxia Periventricular leukomalacia.